Many archaeology findings were found in Israel. Evidence that without no doubts prove the Jewish connection to that land and serve as the Jewish Bible reference. I can not bring all, but some of them are:
This unique Aramaic inscription, from the 9th century BCE is part of a monumental stone slab commemorating the military victories of Hazael, king of Aram, contains the earliest reference to the Davidic dynasty outside the Bible.
In the inscription, the king boasts of killing Joram of Israel and Ahaziah of “the House of David” (Judah). The text contradicts the account in the Book of Kings, according to which Joram and Ahaziah were killed by Jehu, who subsequently seized the throne of Israel.| Inscription: […] and cut […] my father went up [against him when] he fought at […] And my father lay down, he went to his [ancestors]. And the king of I[s]rael entered previously in my father’s land. [And] Hadad made me king. And Hadad went in front of me, [and] I departed from [the] seven […]s of my kingdom, and I slew [seve]nty kings, who harnessed thou[sands of cha]riots and thousands of horsemen (or: horses). [I killed Jeho]ram son of [Ahab] king of Israel, and [I] killed [Ahaz]iahu son of [Jehoram kin]g of the House of David. And I set [their towns into ruins and turned] their land into [desolation …] other [… and Jehu ru]led over Is[rael … and I laid] siege upon […]
King Uzziah, who ruled in the 8th century BCE, was famous for his building projects. When he died, he could not be buried in the royal tombs, because he was a leper. Some 700 years after his death, in the Second Temple period, Jerusalem expanded, and Uzziah’s tomb had to be moved outside the new city limits. This Aramaic epitaph was erected to mark the king’s new burial place. 1st century BCE – 1st century CE
Inscription in Aramaic:| “Hither were brought | The bones of Uzziah | King of Judah. | Do not open!”|
Royal inscriptions and seals, bearing the names of Ahaziyahu, Uzziah, and Hezekiah – kings of Judah, and Jehoram, Jeroboam and Menahem – kings of Israel were found as well. One of them:
2,600-year-old seal from the Kingdom of Judah bearing the inscription “(belonging) to Nathan-Melech, Servant of the King” was discovered in the City of David, dating it to the First Temple period.
Dr. Anat Mendel-Geberovich of the IAA notes that the fact that this official was mentioned by his first name alone indicates that he was known to all, and there was no need to add his family lineage. The title “Servant of the King” (Eved HaMelech) appears often in the Bible and describes a high-ranking official close to Israel’s kings.
The name Nathan-Melech appears once in the Bible, in the second book of Kings 23:11, where he is described as an official in the court of King Josiah, who took part in the religious reform that the king was implementing: “And he took away the horses that the kings of Judah had given to the sun, at the entrance of the house of the Lord, by the chamber of Nathan-Melech the officer, which was in the precincts; and he burned the chariots of the sun with fire.”
Seal of Megiddo was discovered in 1904 during the earliest excavation of Megiddo, led by Gottlieb Schumacher. This was a seal belonging to a royal minister in the 8th century BC. It is engraved with the figure of a roaring lion (symbol of the kingdom of Judah) with a beautiful curved tail and was skillfully executed. The inscription reads “Shema” on top, and “Servant of Jeroboam” on the bottom.
“Shema servant of Yarob’oam”
The inscription actually proclaims the name and rank of its owner, one of the ministers of King Jeroboam II who reigned from 787-747 BC. The word “servant” is the Hebrew word “ebed” and is mentioned in the Bible as one of high dignity in the government. Many seals have been discovered with similar inscriptions like “the servant of the king.”
2 Kings 14:23-25 In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash, king of Judah, Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel, became king in Samaria, and reigned forty-one years. And he did evil in the sight of the LORD; he did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who had made Israel sin.
Jeroboam means, “may the people grow numerous.” He was Jeroboam II, the son of Joash, king of Israel.
These two silver amulets from the 6th century BCE, bear the oldest copies of biblical text known to us today. They are some five hundred years older than the Dead Sea Scrolls. | The amulets, inscribed with ancient Hebrew script, were found rolled into tiny scrolls in a burial cave in Jerusalem. They were incised with a sharp, thin stylus, no thicker than a hair’s breadth, and thus deciphering the inscription was difficult. The lower part of the inscription has been identified as a version of Numbers 6:24-26: “The Lord bless and protect you. The Lord deal kindly and graciously with you. The Lord bestow his favor upon you and grant you peace.” This formula, which found its way into the Jewish liturgy, is known as the Priestly Benediction.
In the 6th century BCE, coins were used in the Land for the first time. While the initial currencies were Greek and Phoenician, over time, local coins were also minted. This tiny coin was issued by the provincial administration of Yehud, 4th century BCE It bears the name of the province.
During the Bar Kokhba rebellion against the Romans, circa 132 CE, Bar Kokhba regained control of Jerusalem and issued coins proclaiming the freedom of Jerusalem. Many of those coins have been found in Jerusalem and one was recently discovered in some debris that came from the Temple Mount.
Jewish settlement from 1st century CE until the Bar-Kokhba Revolt in 135 CE, discovered in BeerSheva The shard of a rare oil lamp depicting a menorah with nine branches has been uncovered in the southern town of Beersheva. This is one of the earliest artistic depictions of a Jewish menorah ever discovered.
Impressive remains of a large Jewish village from the Hasmonean period have been discovered during an excavation conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority in the Sharafat neighborhood of Jerusalem.
The excavation reveals a town from between 40 and 116 BCE, the period in which the famous “Maccabee” family defeated the Greek conquerors and reestablished Jewish rule over the Land. The Hasmonaean/Maccabee dynasty eventually expanded into the regions of Samaria and the Galilee, reaching as far north as Lebanon and Syria, and south covering the Jordan Valley, the Dead Sea and Idumea (Moab) in southern Jordan. Modern scholars refer to this period as an independent kingdom of Israel. The Hasmonean dynasty survived for 103 years before yielding to the half-Jewish Herod the Great (an Idumean) as king in 37 BCE. Herod made Judea a Roman client state and ordered the killing of all male Jewish infants when he heard that “the King of Jews was born in Bethlehem.”
The story of Chanukah recalls the miracle of the Menorah burning for eight days and the victory of the Maccabees over the Syrian-Greeks. The Maccabees founded a royal dynasty called the House of the Hasmoneans. They ruled from the mid-second century BCE until a few decades before the common era. Hasmonean kings issued coins bearing their names. Thousands of these Jewish coins have been found in and around Jerusalem.
Students working to build the “Sanhedrin Trail” in Israel’s Galilee unearthed a 1,400-year-old oil lamp bearing the symbol of the Jerusalem Temple’s menorah.
This ancient parchment has been dated to the 7th century BCE, which makes it one of only three papyri documents from that era.
The document from the First Temple period, of which only two lines of ancient Hebrew script have survived, is a dispatch regarding a gift of wine “to Jerusalem.” The text itself reads: “[hand]maid of the king, from Na’arata, wineskins, wine, to Jerusalem.” The city of Na’arata, or Naarah is mentioned in Joshua 16:7. The gift of wine was sent either to King Manasseh, King Amon or King Josiah – who reigned during this period.
Prof. Ahituv emphasized that “not only is this papyrus the most ancient external biblical source that mentions Jerusalem in Hebrew script, but also, until now, no papyrus documents from the First Temple period have been found in the Land of Israel except one from Murabat creek.” The papyrus also draws attention to high-ranking women in the Judean administration.
The Merneptah Stele The ancient Egyptian inscription dates to about 1205 B.C.E. and recounts the military conquests of the pharaoh Merneptah.
The bulk of the inscription deals with Merneptah’s victory over the Libyans, but the last 3 of the 28 lines shift to Canaan:[
The princes are prostrate, saying, “Peace!”
Not one is raising his head among the Nine Bows.
Now that Tehenu (Libya) has come to ruin,
Hatti is pacified;
The Canaan has been plundered into every sort of woe:
Ashkelon has been overcome;
Gezer has been captured;
Yano’am is made non-existent.
Israel is laid waste and his seed is not;
Hurru is become a widow because of Egypt.
A 2,000 Year-Old column drum bears an Aramaic inscription: “Hanania son of Dudolos of Jerusalem.” It represents the first epigraphic testimony to the name Jerusalem spelled Yerushalayim (as it is written in Hebrew today), as opposed to Yerushalem or Shalem.
The column drum, was originally part of a building that stood in a Jewish potters’ village on the outskirts of Jerusalem. The site was eventually converted by the Tenth Roman Legion into a workshop for ceramic building products. The column drum probably came from a workshop or some other structure belonging to Hanania or a public building that he helped finance. Hanania’s father’s name – Dudolos – is based on the name of the mythological Greek artist Daedalos; it may have been a nickname alluding to the father’s artistic abilities. It is interesting to note that although the village was very close to the city, Hanania still found it meaningful to mention his Jerusalem origins.
Dr. Yuval Baruch, Jerusalem Regional Archaeologist of the Israel Antiquities Authority, and Prof. Ronny Reich of Haifa University, who read and studied the inscription, note that “First and Second Temple period inscriptions mentioning Jerusalem are quite rare.
A fish swallows an Egyptian soldier in a mosaic scene depicting the splitting of the Red Sea from the Exodus story, from the 5th-century synagogue at Huqoq, in northern Israel. (Jim Haberman/University of North Carolina Chapel Hill)
Roman-era synagogue in Huqoq, which has garnered startlingly beautiful and unusual mosaics which illustrate biblical scenes, including the first depiction of Jonah in an ancient synagogue. “All of these are revolutionizing our understanding of Judaism in the Talmudic period and Jewish settlement in Late Roman-Byzantine Galilee,” she wrote of her current dig.
Via the Israeli Museum
http://www.israeltoday.co.il Israel Antiquities Authority.